TTD Biber Gazı ile İlgili Basın Bildirisi

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BASINA VE KAMUOYUNA,

“Biber Gazımız Yüzde 100 Doğaldır” başlığıyla Hürriyet Gazetesi’nin 15 Ağustos 2012 tarihli sayısında yayımlanan habere Türk Toraks Derneği adına yanıt vermek gereğini duymaktayız.  

Türk Toraks Derneği biber gazı kullanımından kaynaklanan sağlık sorunlarını sorgulayan kamuoyunun başvurularıyla sık olarak karşılaşması sonucunda konuyu incelemek üzere 2012 yılı içinde “Göz Yaşartıcı Gazlara Bağlı Olarak Görülen Solunum Sağlığı Sorunları” başlıklı bir projeyi derneğin üyesi olan bir araştırma ekibiyle gerçekleştirmiştir. Çalışmanın ön sonuçlarına göre biber gazının üst havayollarından alt havayollarına kadar sigara kullanımına benzer zararlı etkilere yol açtığı gözlenmiştir. Biber gazı kullanımının solunum işlevlerini bozduğu ve küçük havayollarındaki akım hızının karşılaşılan biber gazı miktarı arttıkça azaldığı anlaşılmıştır. Bu durum tıkayıcı havayolu hastalıklarının bu grupta arttığını düşündürmektedir. Türk Toraks Derneği’nin çalışması biber gazıyla karşılaşmış olup da ölmeyen! şanslı bireyler üstünde gerçekleştirildiği için sonuçlar sadece solunum sistemi üstündeki tehlikeli etkilerini ortaya koymuştur.

OC biber gazının doğal bitki olduğu açıklaması bizzat biber gazı üreticilerinin OC ürünlerinde biber özütü dışında, alkol, organik çözücüler, hidrokarbon gibi maddelerin katkı maddesi olarak kullanıldığını belirtmeleriyle çelişmektedir. Biber özütü dışındaki bu maddelerin solunması bile ani kalp, solunum, sinir sistemi etkilenmelerine, ritm bozukluklarına ve ölümlere yol açmaktadır (Smith G, Health Hazards of Pepper Spray, NCMJ, 1999). İstanbul Üniversitesi Farmakoloji bölümünün raporu kamuoyu ile paylaşıldığında hangi araştırmaların sonuçlarının sunulduğu daha iyi anlaşılacaktır. Kafkas Üniversitesi Veterinerlik Fakültesi tarafından yapılan çalışmada kapalı ortamda farklı dozlarda OC gazıyla karşılaşan farelerin kanlarında asit yöne kayış, karbondioksit artışı gözlenmiştir. Araştırmanın sonucu hayvanların solunum güçlüğü ve konjonktivit bulguları gösterdiğini bildirmiştir (Seyhan E,  Ratlarda Biber Gazının (OC) Bazı Biyokimyasal Parametreler Üzerine Etkisi, Kafkas Ün. Vet. Fakültesi Dergisi, 2012). Araştırmalardan birinde OC’ye bağlı olduğu bildirilen bir ölüm olgusu şöyle tariflenmiştir; “Biber gazına bağlı doğrudan ölümün gözlendiği erkek olguda 10-15 kez spreyle karşılaşma, sprey sonrası hızla nefes darlığının ortaya çıkması ve oturur pozisyonda da nefes darlığının sürdüğü gözlenmişti.” (Steffee CH, Oleoresin capsicum (pepper) spray and “in-custody deaths”. Am J Forensic Med Pathol, 1995). Yapılan araştırmalar biber gazının;

  • Astımın bir çeşit alt grubuna yol açabildiğini (Reaktif Havayolu Disfonksiyonu Sendromu) ,
  • Önceden astım tanısı olan hastalarda ölüme neden olabildiğini,
  • Kapalı alanda kullanıldığında daha da ölümcül olabildiğini,
  • Biber gazının yoğun kullanımla açık alanda da ölümcül olabildiğini göstermektedir.

Biber gazının insan üstündeki etkileri Amerika’da çeşitli araştırmaların konusu olmuştur. Yaklaşık 6000 emniyet görevlisinden 61’inde solunum güçlüğünden bilinç kaybına uzanan hayatı tehdit eden sonuçlarla karşılaşılmıştır (Smith G, Health Hazards of Pepper Spray, NCMJ, 1999). Biber gazına bağlı uzun süreli etkilenimler ve ölümler dikkatli bir literatür incelemesiyle karşımıza çıkmaktadır. Bu durumda İstanbul Üniversitesi Farmakoloji bölümünün “Biber gazı zararsızdır” kesin yargısını hangi bilimsel araştırmalara dayandırdığını öğrenmek tüm kamuoyunun hakkıdır. 
Karagama ve arkadaşlarının yürüttüğü bir çalışmada CS gazıyla karşılaşmadan 10 ay sonra bile ve dolaylı karşılaşmada dahi solunum fonksiyonunun bozulduğu bildirilmiştir (Karagama YG, Short-term and long-term physical effects of exposure to CS spray, 2003). Bu çalışmalar da gerek OC gerekse CS gazlarının sağlığa kalıcı zararlarını ortaya koymaktadır.

Türk Toraks Derneği;

  • Kamuoyunun vicdanını rahatsız eden biber gazı kullanımına ilişkin uzmanlık derneklerinin ve araştırma kuruluşlarının oluşturduğu bir konseyin açıklama yapmasını,
  • İstanbul Üniversitesi Farmakoloji bölümünün biber gazının zararsız olduğuna dair açıklamasını kamuoyuyla paylaşmasını,
  • Biber gazına bağlı ölümlü olaylarda içinde Türk Toraks Derneği’nin de yeraldığı uzmanlık kuruluşlarından bilirkişi atanmasını talep etmektedir.

Saygılarımızla. 


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